Both diseases of the structures supporting your teeth (periodontal disease) and atrophy of the alveolar ridge secondary to tooth loss can cause bone loss in the jaw. Given certain conditions, the bone lost can be regenerated. Various alternatives are currently available in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
These include bone autografts harvested from various donor sites in the oral cavity and outside it, distracting the local bone (distraction osteogenesis) or implanting bone-regenerating allogenic materials with or without the use of platelet rich plasma (obtained by processing your own blood). Which of these options is best for you can only be determined by a meticulous work-up and adequate counseling.